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Bovine mastitis, somatic cells. Count, limit, number of somatic cells in milk and definition of the health status of the bovine udder.
For all information onsymptomsand on thediagnosisof thebovine mastitis (what it is, what are the causes, definition ...) I refer you to the page entitled: bovine mastitis, causes.
Somatic cells in milk
They are definedsomatic cellsall the cellular elements of milk. Typically, thesomatic cellspresent inmilkare above allleukocytesof blood origin (over 90%) and to a small extent epithelial cells of mammary origin (within 10% of total somatic cells).
Why thesomatic cellscan be an indicator ofbovine mastitis?
Because during the inflammatory processes of the mammary glands, an increase in thesomatic cellspresent in milk. Thesomatic cellsthey increase in response to the penetration of bacteria into the breast.
In summer, with the heat, there is a tendency to register aphysiologicalincrease insomatic cells in milk. However, this increase could also be linked to thebovine mastitis. In the summer, if a breeder were to register an increase incontent of somatic cells in milk, will have to perform a bacteriological examination for each quarter in order to identify the frequency and etiology of the infections present.
For coincidences related to the summer heat, it is advisable to analyze thesomatic milk cellswithin the month of May.
Bovine mastitis, somatic cells
It is the bacterial invasion dictated by thebovine mastitisto cause an inflammatory and immune reaction which causes, in turn, an increase insomatic cells in milk.
The inflammatory reaction is aimed at eliminating pathogens. The breeder should pay attention tosymptoms of bovine mastitisso as to promptly isolate the animal and avoid contagion.
There are some cases ofbovine mastitisasymptomatic but the increase insomatic cellsisalwaysa reliable indicator. For example, Prototheca mastitis are often without clinical manifestations (asymptomatic) and therefore evolve into chronic forms. In this circumstance, the only indicator that allows for inflammation to be identified is the analysis of the quarters. Prototheca mastitis, in fact, is characterized by a consistent elevation of somatic cells.
Prototheca is an alga of which there are several species: Prototheca moriformis, P. stagnora, Prototheca ulmea, P. wickerhamii and P. zopfii. It is believed that only these last two species can infect animals and humans. There bovine mastitis caused by the algal microorganism Prototheca is more widespread in those farms with low hygiene standards and high levels of humidity. These algae can also live and multiply in the intestinal tract of bovine animals of all ages and faeces are therefore the main vehicle for spread.
Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments for Prototheca mastitis. Unfortunately, the only solution involves the elimination of the animal also in order to minimize the spread of the outbreak.
Count somatic cells
For thesomatic cell countfresh samples should be used. If the testing center were to use frozen samples, it would experience a false count.
Definition of the health status of the breast based on somatic cells
At the international level, a very specific one was borndefinitionof what is the health status of the breast based on the quantity ofsomatic cellspresent in milk.
Limit expressed in: n./mL
A healthy quarter has fewer than 100,000somatic cellsfor each mL with negative bacteriology. In the case of positive bacteriology we speak of latent infection.
Inflammation begins when thesomatic cell countis between 100,000 and 200,000 (n / mL).
We talk aboutmastitiswhen 200,000 somatic cells per mL are exceeded.